Molluscum contagiosum is a common skin infection caused by a poxvirus.
It appears as raised, pearl-like skin bumps which are called nodules
or papules that can appear on the skin, on the tongue or in the mouth.
Most cases are on the genitals, body trunk, hands. and face.The viral infection occurs worldwide but has a higher distribution in tropical
countries where the climate is warm. It also has a higher incidence
among sexually active adults, young children, and people who have
weakened immune systems. The virus is contagious and is spread via direct contact with an infected person or when sharing gym mats, clothing, towels or personal items. Molluscum is not dangerous in general and not a reason to keep a child out of activities."
Video: Causes and Treatment of Molluscum Contagiosum
The Doctors discuss causes and Molluscum Contagiosum treatment.
- Common skin infection, frequently seen in children
- Caused by the Poxvirus - called the molluscum virus
- Spread through direct contact with another person or shared clothes
- Can persist for months to 1 to 2 years
- Optional treatment
- Resolves without treatment if immune system is normal
- Can have one pimple or multiple pimples (2 to 5mm)
- Each pimple has a tiny dimple on the surface, called umbilication that contains the virus particles.
- Appearance is round, flesh-colored or pink, waxy
- May have a surrounding rash
- Found on the face in kids, legs, arms, and trunk
- Young adults can have it in the groin area after sexual contact
- People with atopic dermatitis may have a worse case
How is Molluscum Contagiosum Spread?
The poxvirus Molluscum contagiosum (MC) may be acquired in a number of ways. The infection usually spreads by direct contact with a lesion, making it common among children and athletes. Sexually active adults also acquire the infection and early lesions on the genitals may be mistaken for warts or herpes, although these lesions are painless.
The virus can also spread through skin contact with contaminated objects like towels, clothes, or toys. For example, sharing clothes is a common cause. The virus is also spread between athletes that come in close contact such as gymnasts that touch common surfaces or wrestlers.
People with a weakened immune system such as those with HIV/AIDS may have a worse type of molluscum contagiosum infection.
The condition is easily diagnosed from its appearance, but a skin biopsy may help confirm the diagnosis and rule out other possible skin infections. The biopsy will look for what are called Henderson-Patterson Bodies.
A differential diagnosis is needed since the condition can look like:
- Skin cancer
Video: Who Gets Molluscum Contagiosum, What It Looks Like and How To Treat It
Dr, Kevin St. Clair discuss everything you need to know about molluscum contagiosum.
This common skin infection is characterized by single or multiple, rounded, pink, dome-shaped, pearly papules that are about 2-5 mm in diameter. The papules have dimples (umbilicated) and contain a white, cheesy plug. They may be seen in lines, where scratching has occurred, or in groups (also called crops). In children, they are often found on their faces, necks, armpits, arms, and hands. They may also be found in other places of the body such as the genitals, buttocks, abdomen, and inner thighs, especially in sexually active adults, but not in the palms or soles. The average outbreak has 10 to 20 papules or skin bumps.
Molluscum Contagiosum Signs and
- Starts with small pink skin growths
- Smooth to the touch with a wax-like feel
- Dimpled in the center
- Do not cause pain
- May itch
- Turn red as the body fights the infection
- Can appear on different body parts
- Scratching can spread the condition
There is usually no associated inflammation or redness except if one has been scratching or digging the lesions. Skin lesions may disappear without treatment after a few months, but recurrence may occur. They usually leave no scars except when intense scratching causes skin damage. However, in patients who have weak immune systems, the disorder may persist and may be complicated by a superimposed bacterial infection.
Molluscum Contagiosum Treatment
When To Treat Molluscum Contagiosum
Doctors usually recommend no treatment since the condition will usually resolve on its' own if the patient's immune system is operating normally. It can take a few weeks to go away on its' own.
However, in persons with a compromised immune system, the condition may become rapidly worse.
Therapy is warranted when:
- Symptoms exist such as itching
- High likelihood that condition will spread to other children or adults
- Cosmetic reasons
- To prevent scars from forming
- To prevent infection
If genital molluscum contagiosum is present in sexually active people, treatment is needed to avoid spreading the infection to partners. Also referred to as a molluscum contagiosum STD (sexually transmitted disease).
There are a number of molluscum contagiosum treatment options available.
Some people prefer to have their skin treated so as to avoid scratching and to improve their appearance. Individual papules may be surgically removed by:
- Scraping (curettage, may result in scars)
- Freezing (cryosurgery)
- Cantharidin (topical keratolytic liquid agent which is applied to the area, causes blistering, pain, itching, and hyperpigmentation)
- Curettage (scraping off pimples)
- Cryotherapy (possible side effects include scarring, pain, color change, blisters)
Pulsed dye laser for molluscum contagiosum has also been found to produce excellent results. It is well tolerated and does not produce scars or pigment changes. The treatment is quick and effective but it is more costly.
Topical medications may be helpful in removing lesions, but these can cause blistering and temporary skin discoloration. These medications include cantharidin, tretinoin 0.1% cream, imiquimod cream, 10% iodine solution, 10% potassium hydroxide, and Cidofovir. Products include Imiquimod (liquid topical applied to bumps for stubborn conditions) and Retinoids.
There are also natural treatment options available that use plant extracts to assist with symptom relief such as Naturasil. A recent study shows a 90% or greater reduction in visible molluscum lesions in children age 16 to 19 using a combination of essential oils with Melaleucaalternifolio (tea tree oil) - (Markum E, Baillie J (2012). "Combination of essential oil of Melaleucaalternifolia and iodine in the treatment of molluscum contagiosum in children". J. Drugs Derm. 11 (3): 161–165.).
For patients with weakened immune functions, skin eruptions may be widespread and disfiguring. Local treatments are ineffective, and antiviral medications, as well as immune system strengthening therapy, may be necessary.
The condition continues to be contagious until all skin bumps are healed. In most people, skin bumps will disappear in 2 to 4 months. The exception is anyone with a weakened immune system.
by: The Society for Pediatric Dermatology
by: Nationwide Children's Hospital
American Academy of Dermatology